Cationic antimicrobial peptides are becoming crucial for animal defense. The peptides can be induced through bacteria or other products. The peptide has a wide range of bacterial strains and this include antibiotic resistance. They have the potential to kill quickly and delay the selection of resistant mutants. These are synergistic to conventional antibiotics, lysozyme and other peptides. These will be able to kill the bacteria especially in test animals. The name given to it is bacterial infection and can be treated with antibiotics leading to the release of lipoteichoic acid and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (bacterial products) leading to lethal sepsis. The peptides prevent cytokine induction with the help of bacterial products found tissue culture. It is said to block the beginning of sepsis in mouse models.
An array of experiments is conducted using macrophage cell and it has demonstrated a model peptide, it also blocks the reflection of the genes with induced LPS. The peptides initiates this process to block the LPS reaction. Moreover, the CEMA has a direct influence on the expression of macrophage gene. The cationic antimicrobial peptides are stimulated by LPS and as a result weaken septic responses between animal cells and LPS. Thereby it is responsible for microbes killing assisted by lysozyme. It also has a role to play in cytokine responses.
Animals are constantly endangered by potential pathogens on a daily basis either through inhalation, contact or ingestion. These guys stand the danger of an infection. The infection can be avoided only if their mechanism of immunity is strong or if the cellular immunological system is defensive against such infections. Studies reveal that this system is not instantly triggered to protect against pathogen exposure. More exposure to the subject can be found on http://www.vivo.colostate.edu/hbooks/genetics/biotech/basics/prostruct.html.
Earlier, there was an apparent increase in role of cationic antimicrobial peptides. The evidence goes to prove the role in the defense of microbes is crucial to antibodies, phagocytes and immune cells. For instance, in the Drosophilla, fruit fly cationic peptides form a major defense mechanism against infections from bacteria or LPS. It shows the similarity of mammalian immune system by bringing in Toll receptors as well as transcription factor.
Understanding the antimicrobial peptides nature
Antimicrobial peptide is the term used to refer to gene-encoded peptides. It consists of 12 to 50 amino acids and determines two high positive changes on account of arginine residue and lysine along with 50% of hydrophobic amino acids. These are found in most life species and plants including crustaceans, molluscs, fish, birds and amphibians. Over 500 similar peptides have been discovered and these can be divided into four structural classes called β sheet containing 2-3 strands that are stabilized via disulphide bridges, extended structures, α helices, loop structures and amphipathic.
The peptides are called antimicrobial because of the broad spectra activity. It includes the ability to neutralize Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria, parasites, fungi, herpes simplex virus and cancer cells. The peptides are selective when it comes to microbes in comparison with eukaryotic cells. It is found that single 13-aa peptide will be able to neutralize fungi, virus and bacteria. The peptide is most likely found in animal parts especially those that come in contact with the environment, like ears, eyes, skin, epithelial surfaces, tongue, lungs, trachea and the gut.